YateHSS/HLR and YateUCN for Mobile Virtual Network Operators

The MVNO’s business depends mostly on the cost-efficiency of its core infrastructure and roaming agreements. This page comes with some preliminary information about our solutions for MVNOs.

What is a Mobile Virtual Network Operator?

A Mobile Virtual Network Operator (MVNO) provides services to its subscribers (roaming, voice & data, applications, customer care, handset management, etc.) by making agreements with Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) without owning a radio access network infrastructure.

Mobile Virtual Network Operator entering a new market

For each new market entry an MVNO will get a type of agreement that gives access to the radio network infrastructure of at least one MNO:

An agreement in which the MVNO buys a range of IMSI codes from the MNO,


An agreement in which the MVNO has its own MCC and MNC. In this case the MVNO has its own IMSI range and the agreement is mainly for the radio network infrastructure access and for other commercial reasons.

SIM (Subscriber Identification Module)

MVNOs provide SIM cards to their subscribers for authentication and registration to the network.
Each SIM card has an IMSI code with the following structure:

image explaining IMSI number meaning: MCC, MNC and MSIN

MCC = Mobile Country Code
MNC = Mobile Network Code
MSIN = Mobile Subscription Identification Number

The MVNO can have its own [MCC][MNC] codes from the country’s legal authority, where the MVNO operates.

Network infrastructure

A Mobile Virtual Network Operator may need some or all of the following network components for its business:

  • Home Location Register/ Home Subscriber Server – for authentication, registration and authorization;
  • Gateway Mobile Switching Center – for voice;
  • Gateway GPRS Support Node – for data;
  • SMSC
    Short Message Service Center – for SMSs;
  • MMSC
    Multimedia Messaging Service Center – for MMSs.
Image presenting the components of an MVNO: HSS/HLR, SMSC, GMSC, Voicemail, MMSC, GGSN, STP

Billing system

The billing system makes each MVNO’s business model different. Find some examples below:

  • Offering low prices to subscribers for roaming all over the world;
  • Charging a monthly fee and providing international minutes for voice services and data;
  • Offering specific services such as Customer Care Services in a certain language, for the niche market of migrant population;
  • Providing only data services using the same tariffs all over a continent;
  • Offering specialized mobile apps for niche markets, such as kids niche market, seniors niche market, health and safety niche market, sports niche market, etc.
  • Presence on the IoT market: fleet management, POS terminals.

Roaming agreement

MVNO users can roam using either the main MNO roaming agreement or other roaming partners.

Image presenting a Roaming hub and its role between the MVNO and the MNO

A roaming hub is a type of carrier that provides a package of roaming agreements in a single contract. Roaming hub providers have roaming agreements with many operators and they allow smaller operators to use these agreements.

Our solutions for MVNOs

An MVNO needs for a mobile network infrastructure for voice and data:

Full MVNO:

  • Its own GMSC, GGSN, HLR-AuC, HSS, billing system
  • with Yate: YateUCN as GMSC (voice), GGSN (data) and YateHSS/HLR (HLR, HSS, AuC)

Light MVNO:

  • Its own HLR, HSS, billing

YateHSS/HLR is single product which includes both HSS and HLR-Auc:

  • Supports SS7 and Diameter protocols
  • Is a software implemented product that uses commodity hardware

HSS/HLR/AuC SIM subscribers management
See the product here ››

As an HLR, YateHSS/HLR supports the SS7 MAP protocol and connects to the radio network infrastructure through the STP routers.

Image showing HLR and AuC functions performed by YateHSS/HLR in an GSM MVNO

As an HSS, YateHSS/HLR provides Diameter support and delivers signalling to the RAN through DRA routers.

Image showing HSS function performed by YateHSS/HLR in a LTE MVNO

For redundancy purposes the YateHSS/HLR can be configured in a cluster of equal nodes:

  • Each subscriber profile operations are replicated in all the other YateHSS/HLRs of the network
  • Many to many relationships between the core network, SS7 STP/ Diameter routers, and the YateHSS/HLR nodes eliminate single points of failure from the network

The YateHSS/HLR supports the following profiles: Wifi, EPS, IMS, CS, PS. YateHSS/HLR supports both SS7 MAP and Diameter in a single product, so MVNO subscribers can roam from a 4G network to 2G/3G networks.

HSS/HLR profiles supported by YateHSS/HLR: WiFi, EPS, IMS, CS, PS

For YateHSS/HLR specification click the following link: product specifications.

The YateHSS/HLR is an affordable and scalable solution for any operator, please check our price offer on our website and contact us for personalized solutions.

Our Core Network Components

YateUCN is a cost-efficient and easy to manage core network solution for MVNOs.

Unified LTE/GSM+GPRS core network, including SGSN, GGSN, GMSC, MME, SGW, PGW
See the product here ››


YateUCN uses the HLR to localize the MSC/VLR of the called subscriber and routes the call to the designated MSC/VLR in the MNO network.


When configured as a GGSN, YateUCN establishes and maintains the IP sessions of the subscriber and routes the IP packets to the SGSN in the MNO network.

The IP packets are routed to the SGSN over the GTP-c v1 protocol.

Image with GGSN and GMSC functions performed by YateUCN in a GSM MVNO

YateUCN is an affordable and scalable solution for any operator. Please check our price offer on our website and contact us for personalized solutions.

MVNO billing system solutions

 YateUCN supports billing integration with any charging system of an MVNO.

  • The YateUCN as a GMSC supports charging operations for prepaid and postpaid billing using CAMEL phase 2
  • The YateUCN as a GGSN supports RADIUS and 3GPP extensions for postpaid billing
  • Note: our Yate network components can interconnect with other network components